Population policy UPSC NOTES Uttar Pardesh

Why New Population policy introduced in Uttar pardesh ?

Uttar Pradesh Chief Minister launched the State’s New population policy for 2021-2030.


Uttar Pradesh CM Yogi Adityanath released the new population policy for 2021-2030 on the occasion of World Population Day. In the new population policy, a target has been set to bring the birth rate to 2.1 per thousand population by 2026 and to 1.9 by 2030.

 

why new population policy  introduced in uttar pardesh ?

New population policy aims 

  • Decreasing the total fertility rate from 2.7 to 2.1 by 2026 and 1.7 by 2030.
  • Increasing modern contraceptive prevalence rate from 31.7% to 45% by 2026 and 52% by 2030.
  • Increase male methods of contraception use from 10.8% to 15.1% by 2026 and 16.4% by 2030.
  • Decrease maternal mortality rate from 197 to 150 to 98, and infant mortality rate from 43 to 32 to 22, and under 5 infant mortality rate from 47 to 35 to 25.
  • It targets stabilisation and that the State would attempt tomaintain a balance of population among the various communities.
  • The policy comes at a time when the UP State Law Commission has prepared the proposed draft Bill under which a two-child norm would be implemented and promoted.
  • A person who will have more than two children after the law comes into force would be ban from several benefits such as government-sponsored welfare schemes and from contesting elections to the local authority or anybody of the local self-government.
  • According to the draft, ration card units would be limited to 4 members of a family.

 

 

Impact of rising population &  population related issues

 

1.Demographic dividend of India:

 

India’s ‘demographic dividend’ represents the potential for economic growth based on the age structure of the population.

Over 61% of India is aged between 15 and 59 years, and Average age of  Indian population is less than 30 years. This significant proportion of young people in the total population will help drive India’s economic growth.

The 2020 UNDP report as well as a study conducted by The Lancet point published by WHO out that as against the earlier fears of population explosion, the Indian population would stabilize earlier than expected most likely in the next 12 years.

Thus the window available to India to leverage its ‘demographic dividend’ is narrower than earlier estimates and it will be more critical that India focuses its attention on safeguarding adolescents and young people’s well-being to reap the benefits of the demographic dividend.

At 252 million, India’s adolescent population is among the highest in the world.

 

 Challenges in reaping demographic dividend

 

Underfunded Education Sector :

 

India’s underfunded education system is inadequately equipped to provide the right education and skills to young people.

Public expenditure on education in India constituted 4.4% of GDP in 2019 and only 3.1% of GDP in 2020.

India stands 62nd in terms of public expenditure on education per student.

Such an underfinanced system would be plagued by issues such as poor infrastructure, poor teacher-student ratio which will, in turn, have a negative impact on the learning outcome of the children. This would be adverse or negative impact their employability or productivity.


Poor health KPI :

Despite some commendable progress with respect to health indicators such as infant mortality, restrict growth and under-nutrition levels in the child population of India, the number continues to be higher than the global average or in comparison to countries at similar developmental stages as India.

Unhealthy children would grow up to become unhealthy citizens which will not only impede their ability to a good living but also have a marked negative impact on the Nation’s progress .


2.Impacts of the pandemic lockdown 

 

The impact of the pandemic on Youngsters has been severe.

In India, more than 33 crore students have been affected by the shutdown of schools due to the pandemic induced lockdowns. This has terrible impacted the learning process of the students.

The school & Colleges lockdowns have also affected the nutritional security of a large number of children from poor households who are dependent on the mid-day meal scheme for their nutrition.

Studies have indicated that school closures have had a serious impact on the mental well-being of children, with around approx. 18% of young people likely to be suffering from worry and depression during the pandemic.

 

The impact of the COVID-19 pandemic-induced crisis on young girls has been huge.

Around 157 million school girls have been impacted by the closure of schools. Many of those who have dropped out are unlikely to go back to the school.

India has registered a huge rise in the early marriage of girls during the covid-19 pandemic which could be attributed to the increased poverty levels during the pandemic.

There  also been an increase in gender-based violence. Restricted mobility due to lockdowns puts girls at risk of violence at home in the hands of caregivers or partners.

Teenager or young girls continue to be at high risk during  this  situation given vulnerability to abuse and trafficking.



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